A good morning routine for school is a great foundation to have a productive day ahead.
Good time management and proper planning is the key to follow a flawless morning routine and start off the day peacefully.
Being stressful in the morning is never going to help you as you end up getting ready late, forget some important stuff for school, eat less and be unproductive throughout the day.
Rushing to get ready makes you less attentive to small things around you and this will have negative after-effects for the day or even the following days.
Forming good habits is never easy as it requires a lot of patience. Even if you fail in the first few days, never give up but try hard to stick on to the plan and you will slowly start succeeding.
Here are a few of the best tips and hacks that can help you to develop a good morning routine for school.
1. Set Sleep Goals and Stick to It
Going to sleep early at night and waking up early in the morning makes your day more productive.
That is why it is important for school going students to set sleep goals. Having a proper good night’s sleep is really important to make you fresh for the next day.
So learn to finish your evening activities early and go to bed so that you get at least 8 hours of good sleep. Just like setting and developing sleep goals, sticking to it is the most important for a good morning routine.
Try not to use technology before bedtime
Set the mood for sleep
Stick to a regular sleeping schedule
2. Get Half-Ready the night before itself
Doing as many things as possible the night before will give you enough time in the morning to get ready and do the needful in a more relaxed manner.
Keep the bag ready with the necessary things that are required for the next day.
Have a look at the time table and see that you don’t miss out any necessary books
Have a look at the weather forecast for the next day and choose the outfits in advance
Keep the uniform properly ironed and polish the shoes
You may help parents to keep the breakfast and lunch for the next day ready in advance in possible cases. Preparing and keeping it refrigerated helps you to just warm it and use the next day almost instantly.
3. Make your Bed once you wake up
Make it a habit to make your bed once you wake up. This is always part of developing good disciplines in life. Moreover, making your bed will help you not to go back to sleep even if you are tempted.
But see that you take only a couple of minutes to arrange and keep the sheets, pillows, and blankets on the place.
This will also help you to get straight to bed when you are sleepy at night and avoid doing the arrangement when you are tired after the long day.
4. Prepare a Visually appealing Basic Routine Chart
In the case of kindergarten and preschool kids, it is not very easy to make them all ready for school on time with just some plain instructions.
Parents may set up a visually appealing basic routine chart that motivates kids to do their routine activities on their own without the need of pushing them for it every time.
You may also go for sticky notes in their bedroom, bathroom and living room that reminds them of what to do when to get ready on time.
5. Design a Simple Checklist
A customized basic morning routine chart can even be a great option to help high school students, as well. However, a comprehensive checklist can be a better choice for their age as they learn to do things on their own.
Parents may help them to prepare a checklist for a systematic morning routine in the first place so that they don’t miss out on any important activities on the list.
But it is best to leave the rest to them so that they become more responsible and organized individuals.
6. Create a Schedule Calendar
It is a very good option to have a schedule calendar for a family that hangs in the living room.
It can include separate columns for each of the kids in the family and maybe parents too. This will give a clear idea for parents on what all activities are happening on a particular day.
Each kid can be given a separate color on the calendar which makes it easy to identify their chart. Parents and kids can sit down together once a week to discuss past activities and give suggestions to improve their routines.
7. Always keep some Buffer Time
It is common for kids to plan the activities in such a way that there is no room for free time.
If any of the activities get delayed for whatever reasons, all of the following activities will get affected.
So it is always suggested to keep some buffer time for each activity so that everything can be managed well even if something gets delayed.
8. Keep Everything in the Same Place
Kids usually spend a lot of time in the morning to find out the items that are needed to get ready or the ones that are required for school.
Kids should develop a habit of being more systematic and organized in the way they keep their belongings.
Keeping everything including the bags, socks, shoes, water bottles, and coats in the same place after use saves a lot of time which is unnecessarily spent to find them.
9. Always Keep up a Positive Vibe at Home
Once you wake up in the morning, start the day fresh with an overall positive atmosphere at home.
It is good to give a morning smile to your family members and greet them. Make it a morning routine for school.
Besides, it would be a great idea to play some soothing music at home while you get ready.
Have a family playlist including everyone’s favorites. Parents can take initiative to exchange some positive words with kids, hug them and hold hands to show affection which means a lot to them.
10. Stay organized with Homework and School Supplies
It is important to stay systematic with the completion of homework before you head to school.
It is always better to complete the assignments before sleep the previous night. If you are leaving it for the morning,
be sure that you wake up early enough to complete it without any hurry.
Similarly, be ready with the school supplies and replace or refill it on time whenever needed to avoid last-minute worries.
If you are part of smart classrooms, see that the devices have full power and charge it to full the night before themselves.
Parents have to make sure that kids eat a healthy breakfast before they head to school.
Kids are usually in a hurry in the morning and tend to eat less during breakfast to save time.
This makes them less productive for the day. So sit with kids to talk on the importance of a healthy breakfast and persuade them to leave enough time in their morning routine for the same.
12. Create and Maintain a Morning Routine
It is important to have a regular morning routine for school and try to stick on to it.
You can start off the day by switching off the alarm, morning prayers and making the bed.
Then get into the bathroom to do the morning routines including brushing teeth and take shower.
Get dressed up and have a healthy breakfast, if possible with your family.
Have a look into the bag once more to see that everything is kept ready for the day.
Spend some time with your loved ones, pets and siblings.
Wear proper socks and shoes, close and lock the house door if you are the last one to go and start off the day to school peacefully.
13. Always Plan to Start Early from Home
It is always a good decision to start a little early than the normal time from home to school.
This will keep you more relaxed and energetic rather than rushing to get ready in the last minute.
Or else you will tend to start from home in a hurry and this will probably lower your confidence level as everything seems to be incompletely done.
If there is any traffic delay or some unexpected incidents, things can go even worse and you will be late for school. Starting off from home a little early can help you to reach on time even if there are some minor delays on the way.
14. Start off the day with Positive and Motivational Thinking
Starting the day with a good positive note has a lot to do with building self-esteem.
A good positive and motivating thinking can help kids to start off on the right track and stay optimistic.
Repeating positive affirmations like I am friendly, I am capable, I am strong, I can face my fears, My parents are proud of me, etc keeps kids more empowered, happier and go forward to face anything that comes their way.
Follow these tips and tricks and you will soon feel an overall change in the way you start off your day.
A good morning routine keeps you more energetic and awake for the day and the resultant good feel helps you to be more productive.
As the mornings are not rushed anymore, you will feel that there is a lot of time left which keeps you more relaxed.
The resultant positive vibe can pass on to the people around you and your days will be more happy and energetic.
DIY crafts for kids are a boon to the parents who struggle to keep their children occupied and away from the TV and mobile screens.
The craftworks keep them engaged fruitfully. The activities inspire them and expose them to facts visually. It also provides them with the space to be creative.
As for parents, DIY activities keep the children busy at home at a minimal cost. Recycled and unwanted materials can be used for these activities which will keep the costs low.
Buying new toys, which the kids tire out soon, and sending them to art schools are expensive propositions.
These expenses can be avoided and the parents get to spend quality time with the kids too.
We look at 17 awesome DIY crafts for kids that provide a fun-filled activity and a learning experience.
1. Handprint / Footprint Art
The paper or canvas is painted with washable paint. Once dried the child has his/her hand or foot painted.
They place their painted hand/foot carefully in the middle of the dried painted paper.
After the hand/footprint has dried the kids can draw on it according to their imagination. They can picture it to be butterflies, wasps, fishes, elephants etc.
2. Bubble Art
Bubble wrap paper is wrapped on a small cup.
The base of the cup is dipped in different color paints and stamped on art paper or canvas.
The prints look like beautiful flowers of different colors. Stalks can be painted by the kids.
3. Airplane Clothespin
This is very simple to make DIY crafts for kids under the ages of 6. Craft sticks are painted and cut into wing shapes.
These are then stuck onto the clothespin, the longer wings glued to the top and bottom of the clothespin and the shorter for the tail wings.
They can be made real colorful and attractive and hung on a clothesline.
4. Firework Paintings
Pipe cleaners, 4 to 5 of them are folded into half and the end twisted to make a handle.
The other end is fanned out in a circle. This is dipped in paint and stamped on paper giving it a slight twist.
The fan is then dipped in different color paints and stamped in the same place on the paper creating vibrant firework-like art.
5. Glow-in-the-dark Jellyfish
Paper bowls are painted inside out with acrylic glow-in-the-dark paints.
10 to 12 pieces of string of approximate length of 36 inches are squirted with glow paint and left to dry. Two small holes are punched in the center of the bowl.
The string pieces are then threaded through the holes so that both ends come out through the inside of the bowl. These form the tentacles of the jellyfish.
This is then hung in a bright room for about 30 minutes. Then the lights are turned off to see them glow in the dark.
6. Mini lid Banjos
This simple banjo can strum tunes. Four loom bands (rubber bands) are placed on over a bottle lid.
They are secured in place with tape. The end of a jumbo craft stick is cut. The craft stick is then painted or decorated.
The lid with loom bands is then stuck to the craft stick with tape. Tuning knobs can be drawn with a marker at the other ends or plastic buttons can be stuck on.
7. Marble Run
This tubular maze can be made from empty toilet roll tubes. A cardboard piece for a base, 5-10 toilet rolls, paint, glue, and marbles will suffice to make this a smooth marble run.
The rolls are painted different colors, some taped together, some connected together by splitting them halfway.
Holes are cut into the towers and the split halves are glued on in downward slants which will allow smooth flow of marbles.
This is a craft for older children as marbles will be dangerous for children under the age of 6. Sourdough balls can be used for younger children.
8. Race Track
Washi or masking tape can be stuck on the floor or a piece of cardboard big enough to house a race track for small cars.
The child can stick the tape according to his idea of a car racing track with parking spaces and repair stations. He can play with his small cars on this track.
Children tire of toys pretty easily. This DIY toy can be replaced anytime to the kids liking and interest. This saves on buying a race track toy.
9. Soap Boat
A rain gutter becomes a race track for soap boats in this DIY backyard craft.
Small bits of triangular fabric is stuck to toothpicks to look like sails. This toothpick is then stuck into small soap bars.
Water is hosed down one end of the rain gutter. The soap boat placed in the gutter then sail to the other end.
This activity will keep the kid running up and down with the boats.
Older children can make bookmarks from different materials. Tassels attached to paper clips are simple to make.
Painting on craft sticks, cutting strips of rectangular pieces and painting them, see how the imagination of the kids are working.
Corner bookmarks from colored paper are very attractive.
11. Balloon Rocket
One end of a string is tied to the back of a chair. A drinking straw is threaded on the other end of the string and then tied to the back of another chair.
Two pieces of tapes about 2 inches in length are attached to the center of the straw. A balloon is inflated and the open end held onto to prevent the air escaping.
This is then stuck to the tapes on the straw. The balloon is pulled to one end of the string and let off. It shoots across the string to the other end. This activity is educative as real rockets functions in a similar way.
12. Marshmallow shooters
The bottom portion of a disposable cup is cut off. The top of a balloon is cut off and the balloon is stretched over the bottom of the cup.
The open end of the balloon is stuck to the edge of the cup using tape. The opposite end of the balloon is tied into a knot.
Marshmallows are placed in the cup and shot out by pulling the knotted end of the balloon.
The force applied in pulling determines the distance to which the marshmallows travel. This is a fun learning activity for children of all ages.
13. Paper Bracelets
Abstract shapes and colors are painted on paper. The paper is then cut into 16-22 strips and folded into wearable bracelets.
The strips are folded in halves. One strip is slipped into another to form a T.
The tail ends are folded at right angles over the outer strip. The paper strips are added on and attached by folding into each other until the bracelet is long enough to go around the wrist.
14. Paper Bead Necklaces
Strips of paper – wrapping, magazine clipping, newspaper – are rolled into beads. Paper is rolled on to toothpicks.
The tail is glued and the bread rolls are taken off the toothpicks and strung together.
Children can use their creative skills in shaping the bead rolls and placing them to their liking and taste while stringing.
15. Mini Volcanoes
This activity is a bit messy and has to be taken place in a safe area as kids can go berserk seeing the chemical reaction.
Vinegar and baking-soda together create a volcanic type reaction. 4-5 paper cups, cut in half and filled with vinegar, are seated in a large dish.
A few drops of food coloring are added to each cup. A scoop of baking soda is dropped into these cups causing it to fizz out.
This is the lava coming out of a volcano. This is a very simple and informative DIY craft.
16. Toy Parachute
A dinner napkin is reinforced with tape on all four corners. Four pieces of string, about a foot long, are tied into holes punched at the four corners.
Two strands on each side are tied together. A knot is made at the end of each strand to be arm-holes.
A light figure or a tiny soft toy is tied to the armholes. This parachute, when dropped from a small height, opens up, to the delight of the kids.
17. Paper flowers
These paper flowers are made from cupcake liners folded into quarters to look like a zigzag.
The liners are glued together in pairs. Two pairs are then glued together to form a full circle.
A jewel or button can be fixed to the center of the flower. A drinking straw can be attached to the flower as a stem. A group of these flowers can form a bouquet.
To Wrap it up
These simple and easy DYI crafts for kids to keep the children interested and motivated to do more of these activities.
The kids learn easily through activities. The parents and teachers can guide them so that they fully exploit their creativity.
The kids’ interests and aptitudes can also be assessed to an extent.
President of India is known as the first citizen of the country. He is the official head of the Indian state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
At the same time, vice-President is Rajya Sabha’s ex- officio chairman. India has 14 presidents and 13 Vice-presidents till now.
The president of India is elected by an electoral college that includes the members of both houses of the Parliament. Likewise, the vice president of India is also elected.
An interesting fact is that a person in presidential power can resign by submitting the resignation letter to the Vice-President.
Here’s a list of Presidents of India, starting from Dr. Rajendra Prasad to Ram Nath Kovind.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1884 – 1963)
26 Jan 1950 – 13 May 1962
On December 3rd, 2019 India has celebrated the 135th birth anniversary of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the country. In his life, he has played the role of a teacher and a lawyer. When India became a republic in 1950, he was elected as the first president by the Constituent Assembly.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888 – 1975)
13 May 1962 – 13 May 1967
A well known Indian philosopher and professor, Dr. Radhakrishnan was the first vice-president and second president of India. His birthday is celebrated as Teachers’ Day every year on 5th September. In 1954, he was honored with Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in the country.
Dr. Zakir Husain (1897–1969)
13 May 1967 – 3 May 1969
He was a great educationist and was the founder of Jamia Milia Islamia.For his dedicated work in the education field, he was awarded Padma Vibhushan in the year 1954 and for his service for the nation, Bharat Ratna was awarded in 1963.It was in his office in 1969, he died of a sudden heart attack.
V. V. Giri (Varahagiri Venkata Giri) (1894–1980)
May 03, 1969 – July 20, 1969 August 24, 1969 – August 24, 1974
The only president to be elected as an independent nominee, V. V. Giri was born in Odisha. In 1969, after president Zakir Husain’s death in 1969, V.V. Giri became the acting president and then was elected for the position of President with a narrow majority.
Justice Mohammad Hidayatullah (1905–1992)
20 July 1969 – 24 August 1969 6 October 1982 – 31 October 1982
Mohammad Hidayatullah, who served as the 11 Indian Chief Justice and 6th Vice President was also the country’s acting President for two terms, following V.V. Giri’s resignation from the acting President position. In 2003, The Hidayatullah National Law University was established in Raipur in honor of Justice Hidayatullah
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905–1977)
24 August 1974 – 11 February 1977
An active participant of the Indian Freedom Movement, and a strong member of the Indian National Congress since 1925, Dr. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was born in Delhi. On February 1977, just like Dr. Zakir Husain, he also died of a heart attack while being in the position.
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy (1913–1996)
25 July 1977 – 25 July 1982
Known as the youngest Indian president ever, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was the CM of Andhra Pradesh, where he was born. He also served as the Lok Sabha Speaker twice in 1967 and 1977 respectively. He died due to pneumonia in Bengaluru (Bangalore) in the year 1996.
Giani Zail Singh (1916–1994)
25 July 1982- 25 July 1987
Zail Singh was the country’s first and only Sikh president. He got occupied in politics after being moved by Bhagat Singh’s execution. Later he became a part of the Indian freedom movement. In 1972, he became Punjab’s Chief Minister and Indian president in 1982.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (1910–2009)
25 July 1987 – 25 July 1992
Born in Madras presidency, Ramaswamy Venkataraman was an Indian lawyer and he practiced law in the Madras High Court and the Indian Supreme Court. Eighth president and the seventh vice president of the country, he was also a participant in the historic Quit India Movement.
Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918–1999)
25 July 1992 – 25 July 1997
Born in the state of Bhopal, Shankar Dayal Sharma served the presidential position from 1992 to 1997. His contribution to the legal profession has made him a recipient of the ‘Living Legends of Law Award of Recognition’ by the International Bar Association. In 1984, he was appointed as the governor of Andhra Pradesh state and then Punjab governor in 1985
Born in Kottayam district, Kerala, K.R. Narayanan was the first Dalit president of the country. He was also the first sitting president to vote in general elections (1998). A member of INC, he also served as India’s ambassador to the United States as well as China.
Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam (1931–2015)
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
A successful aerospace scientist known as the “Missile man of India”, who grow up from poverty. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born in Tamil Nadu. His autobiography was the most inspiring Wings of Fire. The country honored him with Padma Vibhushan in 1990 and Bharat Ratna in 1997.
Pratibha Singh Patil (1934–)
25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012
The first and only woman to be the President of India, Pratibha Patil was a lawyer by profession. She also served as the Governor of Rajasthan from 2004 to 2007 and was also Cabinet minister under Maharashtra government diverse times. Also she represented the country in several international councils.
Pranab Mukherjee (1935–)
25 July 2012 – 25 July 2017
The 13th Indian president, Pranab Mukherjee became active in politics in 1969 under the guidance of Indira Gandhi. He has also served as minister in defence, commerce, foreign, and finance sector during his career. The country has honored him with the Padma Vibhushan in 2008
Ram Nath Kovind (1945–)
25 July 2017 – to date
The current president of India, Ram Nath Kovind is serving the position since 2017. A lawyer by profession, he has practiced in the High Court as well as the Supreme Court in Delhi. He also served as the Governor of Bihar in 2015.
Presidents of India – by Timeline
List of Vice Presidents of India
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
13 May 1952 – 12 May 1957 13 May 1957 – 12 May 1962
Dr. Zakir Hussain
13 May 1962 – 12 May 1967
Dr. V.V Giri
13 May 1967 – 3 May 1969
Gopal Swarup Pathak
31 August 1969 – 30 August 1974
31 August 1974 – 30 August 1979
31 August 1979 – 30 August 1984
31 August 1984 – 24 July 1987
Shankar Dayal Sharma
3 September 1987 – 24 July 1992
K R Narayanan
21 August 1992 – 24 July 1997
21 August 1997 – 27 July 2002
Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
19 August 2002 – 21 July 2007
Mohammad Hamid Ansari
11 August 2007 – 11 August 2012
11 August 2012 – 11 August 2017
12 August 2017 – Incumbent
India, with its varied and rich cultural heritage, has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence.
Hope this blog helps you to identify the great personalities who occupied the positions of President and Vice-Presidents in India.
Tribes in India refer to a section of the population who are indigenous to the state or region and who live away from the main society. The 20 major tribes of India have been classified based on their geographical isolation, characteristics, features, culture and backwardness. The tribes in India are called by the collective term ‘Adivasis.’
The maximum population of tribes in India is in Orissa, Rajasthan, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The largest number of tribes in India is in Madhya Pradesh followed by Bihar. Delhi, Pondicherry, Haryana, Chandigarh and Punjab are states where there are no tribes.
We give below an overview of the 20 major tribes of India.
1) Bhils Tribe
The Bhils are a tribe found mostly in the mountain ranges of Udaipur and in some districts of Rajasthan.
The Bhils are the largest tribes in India.
They speak the Bhili language. Their celebrations are the Ghoomar dance, Than Gair-a dance drama and the Baneshwar Fair.
2. Gonds Tribe
Found in the Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh and in parts of Maharashtra, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, the Gonds are the second biggest tribe in India.
They are known for their valor and speak many Indian languages including the Dravidian Gondi language.
They have houses of mud walls and thatched roofs in the Gondi forests.
Agriculture is their main occupation. Keslapur Jathra and Madai are their festivals.
3. Munda Tribe
This tribe is found in Jharkhand and parts of Chattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal.
Their life is simple and basic. They speak the Mundari language. The Mundas were hunters in the past but now are laborers in farms.
They follow the Sarna religion owing allegiance to a God called Singbonga. Their language is Killi and Nupur dance is the main entertainment.
The Munda tribes celebrate the Mage, Karam, Sarhaul and Phagu festivals.
The Santhal tribes are a major tribe of West Bengal. They are also seen in parts of Bihar, Odisha, and Assam and are the largest tribe in Jharkhand.
They depend on agriculture and livestock for their living and are great hunters. In addition to traditional festivals like Karam and Sahrai, Santhali dance and music is a major attraction.
Totapara village in Alipurdoar district of West Bengal is home to the Toto tribe.
Their language has no script and is influenced by Nepali and Bengali.
They trade vegetables and fruits to maintain their simple life. They believe in God Ishpa and Goddess Cheima, though they proclaim to be Hindus.
6. Bodo Tribe
The Bodo tribe is found in Assam and parts of West Bengal and Nagaland.
They are believed to be the early indigenous settlers of Assam. They speak a Tibetan-Burmese language, the Bodo.
The weaving of handloom products is an intrinsic part of their culture.
They celebrate the Baishagu festival in spring, dedicated to Lord Shiva.
The Angami Nagas is one of the major tribes found in the district of Kohima in Nagaland.
The men dress in white Mhoushu and black Lohe. The women wear Mechala and ornaments of beads, mask pendants, bracelets, etc.
The tribe is best known for the famed Hornbill Festival which attracts crowds from various parts of the world.
Their intricate art and woodwork and work in bamboo and cane are beautiful. They speak different dialects like Gnamei, Ngami, Tsoghami.
The Bhutias are mainly found in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal and Tripura.
They are of Tibetan ancestry and speak Lhopo or Sikkimese language.
They are known for their art and cuisine. The steamed meat dumplings called momos are their staple food.
Thukpa, noodles in a broth, is another of their dishes. Losar and Loosong are the festivals celebrated.
9. Khasi Tribe
This tribe is mainly spotted on the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and in parts of Assam, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal.
The tribe plays plenty of music and a wide range of musical instruments like drums, guitars, flutes, cymbals, etc.
Their major festival, the Nongkrem festival is five days long when the women wear a dress called Jainsem and the men a Jymphong.
10. Garo Tribe
Garo tribes are mainly found in the hills of Meghalaya and parts of Assam, Nagaland and West Bengal.
The tribe is one of the few matrilineal societies in the world. Garo architecture is quite unique. Nokmong, Nokpante, Jamadaal and Jamsireng are some of them.
The tribal women wear a variety of traditional ornaments. The men wear their traditional dress with a turban with feathers stuck in them. The festival of Wangala is their celebration.
11. Nyishi Tribe
This tribe inhabits the mountains of Arunachal Pradesh with the majority of them from districts of Kurung Kumey, Papum Pare, Upper, and Lower Subansiri.
Nishi is the language spoken by them. A good majority of them have converted to Christianity.
The rest still follow a religion involving spirits associated with nature. The Nyokum festival, celebrated in February every year, is dedicated to the goddess Nyokum.
12. Warli Tribe
The tribe is found in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
This tribe is well known for the Warli Art, where a mixture of cow dung and earth, rice paste, bamboo stick, red ochre are used to create art, paintings and murals.
They conduct the Tarpa dance during the harvest season and the Warli Folk Art Dancing People Festival during March of every year.
13. Chenchu Tribe
This tribe is indigenous to Andhra Pradesh and inhabits the forests of Nallamala Hills.
They are also present in the districts of Kurnool, Nalgonda, Guntur.
They hunt and trade in jungle products like honey, roots, gums, fruits, and tubers. They speak a language with Telugu accent and are a very ritualistic lot.
14. Siddis Tribe
This tribe of Karnataka is believed to have descended from the Bantu people of Southeast Africa.
History says that the people were brought in as slaves by the Portuguese. They are found in various parts of Karnataka. The majority of them are Christians while others follow Hinduism and Islamism. They are fond of ritual practices, dance and music.
The Soligas inhabit the dense forest areas of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
This indigenous group is comprised of five different groups namely Male Soliga, Kadu, Burude, Pujari, Urali Soliga.
The Soligas speak the Sholaga language, which has Kannada and Tamil influence.
Their main source of livelihood is the sale of Raggi, honey, wild turmeric, algae, bamboo, etc harvested by them.
16. Kodava Tribe
This tribe from Mysore, Karnataka is concentrated in Coorg. Well known for their bravery, the tribe is a patrilineal tribe from Kodagu or Coorg.
They speak the Kodava language.
They are basically agriculturists. The people of the tribe, both men and women, are very passionate about hockey.
In addition to the traditional festivals of Kailpodhu, Puttari and Kaveri Sankraman, they celebrate the Kodava Hockey festival every year.
17. Toda Tribe
The Todas are found in parts of the Nilgiris mountain in Tamil Nadu.
Their livelihood depends on cattle farming and dairy. Their skill in architecture is reflected in the oval and tent-shaped bamboo houses with thatched roofs.
Toda embroidery work, Pukhoor, is well acclaimed. Their most important festival is Modhweth.
18. Irular Tribe
The tribe inhabits areas of the Nilgiri mountain in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
They are the second-largest tribe in Kerala and are found mostly in the Palakkad region.
They are mainly farmers and dependent on the production of paddy, dhal, Raggi, chilies, turmeric, and plantains.
They are ritualistic, believe in their own Gods and are known for their skills in black magic.
19. Kurumba Tribe
This is a major tribe found in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. They are one of the earliest settlers of the Western Ghats.
They lead a simplistic lifestyle depending on agriculture and gathering of honey and wax.
They are adept at formulating traditional herbal medicines. They are well known in the region for their skills in witchcraft and magic.
20. Great Andamanese Tribe
This tribe includes the Jarawa, Jangil, Onge, and Sentinelese on the islands of Andaman and Nicobar.
They are known to be the first inhabitants of the island. They speak the Bo, Khora, Jeru and Sare languages.
They keep to themselves and refrain from interacting with outsiders.
India has about 645 tribes in total. The Government of India is keen on the development of these tribes and incorporating their contributions to mainstream society.
Ministry of Tribal Affairs plans and co-ordinates the development programs for the tribes
Technology is advancing, so are the methods in education.
We all depend on different apps for day-to-day activities. There are many apps that help in learning also. The teaching-learning process is made simpler with the emergence of apps, especially math apps.
For most of us, studying math is exhausting.
The advance of math apps has helped the students to make this process an easier one. These math apps will help students to reinforce basic arithmetic concepts and spark a love for learning math.
Let us have a look at the Top 15 free Math Apps for Kids.
An award-winning math app for kids in kindergarten and elementary school
Suitable for the kids of age between 4 to 14
Helps in preparation of GCSEs
High impact and low-cost app
Provides personalized math problems
Aligns with math curriculum running in schools in the UK as well as the USA
Worked upon by teachers of thousands of schools
Finalist of UK Bett Awards 2020 and Education Awards 2020
It has got 4 stars on Google Play and 4.4 stars on the App Store.
So, above are a total of 15 math apps that can change the way your kids see math problems. As you will download one of these apps on your smartphone, you will take one step forward to make your kids befriend with math.
Peer teaching is one of the best ways to master a particular subject. It is a method of teaching, where a student instructs another student, wherein the former will be an expert and the latter a novice.
This paves the learner student to learn without depending upon the teacher, and the teacher-student to revise the topic again, on the belief that “To teach is to learn twice”(Collins).
Through the direct interaction between students, peer teaching promotes active learning as well as participation within themselves. Student teachers enhance their own depth of knowledge in the topic by instructing others.
Benefits of Peer Teaching
Peer teaching is not a novel concept, as it was seen right from the time when the system of Gurukula education prevailed in our society.
Since then, it was an effective method of teaching as well as learning. And now, peer teaching is quite popular among students of all ages.
Here are some of the Main Benefits of Peer Teaching:
It enhances the student’s level of creativity in expressing ideas as well as in grabbing new concepts, as the student may not feel hesitant to clear his queries. This will also uplift his knowledge limit and thus allow a greater level of his understanding. Feeling at ease with a peer tutor, allows a student to concentrate better on the tasks of the lesson, which may transfer into higher achievements in the future. To an extent, the student will start questioning his own doubts, and will later find a way to resolve it himself, which will enable the student to improve his critical thinking.
Peer Teaching involves direct interaction between the learner student and the teacher-student, this will help them to promote the active learning along with interpersonal skills, with which they can actually bid adieu to the so-called boring lectures and classes.
It will ease the teacher’s burden of responsibility because she is sharing her duties with her kids which are beneficial to them. But on the other side, it will increase the teacher’s role in monitoring and administering the students.
Disadvantages of Peer teaching
1) Amateur student
In spite of the fact that the teacher shares her tips and guidelines with the students, it won’t build an expert teacher (student).
There are also chances of a communication gap within the student and the teacher, which may often lead to the failure of assigned activities.
2) The Reluctance of Students
The toughest responsibility that lies upon the shoulders of a teacher is the reluctance of students to initiate the assigned duty.
Just like the two sides of a coin, there may be students who are actually willing to teach and on the other side, there may be students who are hesitant to work out of their comfort zone. Hence, this becomes a challenge for the teacher.
3) Annoyed parents
When the parents come to know about peer teaching, there may be chances for them to misinterpret the concept of peer teaching.
Parents may take it in a derogative manner that their kid is being taught by some other kid of the same age and that the teacher is sitting idle.
So, there may be complaints from the side of the parents until and unless they are completely given the justification behind the concept of peer teaching.
Types of Peer Teaching
1) One way peer teaching
This way of peer teaching provides only the trained tutor to teach, whereas the child with some kind of disability will remain passive.
This method will be more useful for teaching students with severe disorders like autism, visual impairment or cerebral palsy.
The main merit of this method is that the teacher, as well as the student, will be well aware of their roles throughout the entire teaching and learning program
2) Duplex or reciprocal peer teaching
This is a two way or bidirectional teaching process where a student with a disability is paired with a student without disability to form a dyad (pair) and both of them will get chances to teach and learn.
This method is more useful to bring the activeness in children with moderate disabilities.
The main advantage of this method is that every individual will get a chance to play the role of a teacher as well as that of a student simultaneously.
3) Class-wide Peer Tutoring
This methodology of teaching involves grouping the entire class into pairs, and peers mentoring each other by giving prompts, error correction and helping each other.
This method is incomparable because every student is given cue cards for the task to keep them focused on the goal of the chapter and then the tutor takes the cue cards and marks the skills mastered by the particular student.
The main benefit of this approach is that no student is singled-out and that every student has to participate regardless of their disabilities
4) Crisscross or Cross-age peer tutoring
Cross-age peer teaching is a method of tutoring when children in different age groups and ability levels are paired together to work for a task.
The elder or the student with a higher level of intelligence will be assigned as the tutor whereas the other will be the tutee. This method will help them to improve their interpersonal skills too.
In short, peer teaching is all about teaching peers and learning from their peers, which involves learners and teachers of the same or different, age groups or levels of intelligence. This assisted teaching helps the students to enhance their teaching skills. In addition to this, they get a platform to perform what they know which will pave them to drive away from the stage fear within themselves.
UNESCO defines a Biosphere Reserve (BR) as a natural landscape that covers a large area of terrestrial, coastal, marine or a combination of these ecosystems. The purpose of creating biosphere reserves is to conserve biodiversity, protect the culture and tradition, and also maintain the economic development of the area. The establishment of biosphere reserves is guided by the Man and Biosphere (MAB) program of UNESCO. India has 18 Biosphere Reserves, which we will learn more in detail in this blog.
Criteria for Designation of Biosphere Reserves
An area that must possess viably conserved and minimally distributed core area of the esteem of nature conservation.
The core area ought to be of a bio-geographical unit and sufficient to support viable populaces representing all trophic levels within the ecosystem.
The managing authority needs to make sure of the cooperation/involvement of nearby communities to bring a lot of knowledge and experiences to interface biodiversity preservation and socio-economic improvements whereas overseeing and containing the conflicts.
Areas potential for preservation of conventional rural or tribal modes of living for harmonious utilization of nature.
Structure and functions of Biosphere Reserves
The core zone must include an appropriate environment for various plants and animals, including predators and endemism.
This zone often preserves economic species and also represents relevant genetic reservoirs wit exceptional scientific interest.
While realizing that perturbation is a key ingredient of the ecosystem, this area is to be protected from human innovation and pressures external to the system.
The buffer zone surrounds the core zone. The activities of this area are managed in a way to help the core zone to remain in its natural condition.
The activities include restoration, fishing, demonstration sites, tourism, grazing, recreation, etc which are permitted to decrease its impact on the core zone.
Educational activities and researches are to be carried out effectively. Human activities are likely to continue if it does not unfavorably influence biological diversity.
The transition zone is the outermost portion of the biosphere reserve. It is a zone of cooperation where management and conservation skills are used and managed with concern to the biosphere reserve.
This includes croplands, recreation areas, settlements, managed forests and other economic uses specialized in this region.
Have a look at 18 World Famous Biosphere Reserves in our Country
Area (in km2)
Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh
Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts (Uttarakhand).
Parts of Khangchendzonga hills and Sikkim.
Part of Siang and Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh
Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang districts (Assam)
Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts (Assam)
Part of Garo hills (Meghalaya).
Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh
Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.
Achanakamar – Amarkantak
Covers parts of Anupur and Dindori districts of M.P. and parts of Bilaspur districts of Chhattishgarh State.
Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendra Nagar and Patan Civil Districts of Gujarat State
Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa).
Part of delta of Ganges and Brahamaputra river system
Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh
Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and their adjoining areas in Kerala.
Part of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka).
Gulf of Mannar
The Indian part of the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu).
Southern most islands of Andaman And Nicobar (A&N Islands).
1) Cold Desert, Himachal Pradesh
The Cold Desert is spread over 7,700 square kilometers and covers the Pin Valley National Park, Chandratal, Sarchu, and Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary.
It extends from Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir to Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh. This cold desert is located on the leeward side of the Himalayas and hence doesn’t receive any monsoon rain.
This region has a very harsh climatic condition with avalanches, snowstorms, and blizzards. The growing season is very short and water availability is minimal, with only runoffs from glaciers.
This cold dessert is home to the snow leopard, Tibetan Gazzle, Himalayan Black bear, Himalayan brown bear, golden eagle, Himalayan snowcock, Tibetan Wolf, and more.
In fact, this biosphere reserve has many rare species of flora and fauna that are not seen elsewhere.
2. Nanda Devi, Uttarakhand
The Nanda Devi National Park was established in 1982 and declared a biosphere reserve region by UNESCO in 1988. The biosphere reserve includes Nanda Devi National Park and the Valley of the Flowers National Park.
The inner part of the biosphere reserve comprises the Nanda Devi peak and the Rishi glacier (both north and south). This reserve forest area has 312 flowering plant species and 114 bird species.
The Himalayan musk deer, brown bear, snow leopard, Himalayan brown bear, and langurs are seen here.
3) Khangchendzonga or Kangchenjunga, Sikkim
This biosphere reserve area located in the eastern Himalayan region includes three ecoregions, namely alpine shrub and meadows, broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and grasslands.
It is spread over an area of 6032 square kilometers and contains 14 protected areas, of which 1 is in Nepal, 1 in Bhutan, and the remaining 12 in India.
The protected areas in the Indian region are Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary, Shingba Rhododendron Sanctuary, Khangchendzonga National Park, Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary, Jore Pokhri Wildlife Sanctuary, Neora Valley National Park, Singalila National Park, Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary, Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary, Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary, Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary, and Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary.
4) Dihang-Dibang, Arunachal Pradesh
This biosphere reserve was established in 1998 and includes Dibang wildlife sanctuary and Mouling National Park in Arunachal Pradesh.
The biosphere reserve has sub-tropical forests, pine forests, temperate forests, coniferous forests, sub-alpine woody shrub, alpine meadow, grassland, and bamboo brakes. Such a wide variety of vegetation also means that this biosphere reserve is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna.
Rare animals like the musk deer, red ghoral, red panda, Sclater’s monal, Blyth’s tragopan, and Mishmi takin are found here.
5) Manas, Assam
The Manas biosphere reserve area is located in the foothills of the Himalayas and comprises of grasslands and forest.
There are endemic and rare species such as the golden langur, pygmy hog, hispid hare, water buffalo, and Assam roofed turtle here. A major tributary of the Brahmaputra River flows through the dense forests of the Manas biosphere reserve.
6) Dibru-Saikhowa, Assam
The Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere reserve was established in 1997. It covers an area of 765 square kilometers in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts of Assam.
This biosphere reserve consists of semi-evergreen trees, mixed deciduous forests, salix swamp forests, grasslands, and canebrakes.
There are 35 species of epiphytic orchids and 8 species of terrestrial orchids in this reserve forest area. The biosphere reserve has 36 species of mammals, 18 species of reptiles, and nearly 50 species of birds.
7) Nokrek, Meghalaya
The Nokrek Biosphere Reserve located in the West Garo Hills in Meghalaya was added to UNESCO’s list of biosphere reserves in 2009.
It comprises of the Nokrek National Park and the Balpakram National Park. This biosphere reserve has eight species of cats, 7 species of primates and a large variety of birds.
8) Panna, Madhya Pradesh
The Panna National Park in Madhya Pradesh is spread over an area of 4300 hectares. It was declared as a tiger reserve in 1993. Apart from tigers, this national park is home to leopard, sloth bear, sambhar deer, nilgai, Indian vulture, chinkara, blossom-headed parakeet, and many other species.
The northernmost areas of this reserve have teak forests while the eastern region has Kardhai trees. The catchment area of the Ken River lies in the Panna National Park and the nearby Ken Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary.
This tiger reserve had a mere 40 tigers, which dwindled to zero because of poaching that was supported by the forest officers. In 2012, three tigers were brought from other tiger reserves. Now, there are about 10 tigers in this reserve.
9) Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh
The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve was established in 1999. It is located in the Satpura mountain range in Madhya Pradesh.
The unique feature of this biosphere reserve is that it has animals from the Himalayas and the Western Ghats. Spread over an area of 4926.28 square kilometers, this biosphere reserve covers Bori Sanctuary, Pachmarhi sanctuary, and Satpura national park.
One can see wild mango trees, silver fern, sal, and Arjun trees here. Animals in this reserve include nilgai, tiger, leopard, chital deer, sambhar deer, Indian giant squirrels, flying squirrels, wild bear, guar, Indian wolf, and wild dogs.
Located in Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh, the Achanakmar-Amarkantak biosphere reserve is spread across an area of 3835.51 square kilometers.
This biosphere reserve has three rivers – Narmada, Johilla, and Son and the mountain ranges – Vindya and Satpura. The forest has 1500 plant species that include deciduous trees, ferns, and angiosperms.
This reserve forest area has more than 105 medicinal species, of which 25 are very rare.
As for the animals, this biosphere reserve has blackbuck, wolves, tigers, jackals, foxes, and monkeys. There are more than 13 snake and lizard species, 170 bird species, and many frog species.
11) Kutch, Gujarat
The Rann of Kutch is spread over an area of 7500 kilometers in the Thar Desert, Gujarat which is India’s largest salt desert.
This biosphere reserve contains the Little Rann of Kutch, Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Chari-Dhand wildlife sanctuary, Kutch desert wildlife sanctuary, and the Banni grasslands.
This salt desert is home to the Indian wild ass and thorny scrub. During the flooding season, it becomes the breeding ground for greater and lesser flamingos.
12) Simlipal, Odisha
The Simlipal biosphere reserve area comprises of Similipal Tiger Reserve, Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary, and Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary.
This biosphere reserve covers 2750 square kilometers. The forests have sal trees, champak trees, eucalyptus, and red silk cotton trees. Several varieties of orchids also grow here.
This biosphere reserve area has 1076 plant species, 42 mammal species, 242 bird species, and 30 reptile species.
13) Sundarban, West Bengal
The Sundarbans are in the delta region where the rivers Ganga, Megha, and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal.
This biosphere reserve has two eco-regions – freshwater swamp forests and mangroves and consists of open and closed mangrove forests, barren land, and agricultural land.
The mangrove forests of Sundarbans cover nearly 10,000 square kilometers, of which 4260 square kilometers area is in West Bengal, India, and the rest in Bangladesh.
The Bengal tiger, flying foxes, pangolins, spotted deer, wild boars, and fishing cats are some of the animals found in this reserve forest area.
14) Seshachalam, Andhra Pradesh
The Seshachalam biosphere reserve is located in the Tirumala Hills in the Eastern Ghats.
It is spread over an area of 4756 square kilometers. Geologists believe that these mountains were formed about 3.8 to 540 million of years ago in the Precambrian era.
This biosphere reserves in India includes Sri Venkateswara National Park and Idupulapaya.
There are nearly 178 species of birds including the white-backed vulture, Yellow-browed Bulbul, and Large Hawk-Cuckoo.
15) Agasthyamala, Karnataka-Tamil Nadu-Kerala
The Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve is located in the Tamilnadu – Kerala border and covers an area of 3500.36 square kilometers.
It was established in 2001 and was added to the list of UNESCO’s biosphere reserves in the year 2016.
This biosphere reserve has more than 2000 species of medicinal plants, of which 50 are rare herbs. Elephant, tiger and Nilgiri Thar can be seen in the forests.
16) Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu-Kerala
The Nilgiri biosphere reserve covers an area of 5000 square kilometers. It includes Waynad, Mudumalai, Bandipur, Nagarhole, Mukurti, Silent Valley, Aralam, and Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuaries and national parks.
It is the first biosphere reserves in India established in India and covers Kerala, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka.
There are over 370 bird species, 39 fish species, 31 amphibian species, 316 butterfly species, 100 mammal species, and 80 reptile species in this biosphere reserve.
As for the flora, there are nearly 3300 species of plants and 175 species of orchids that grow in this region.
17) Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu
This shallow bay in the Indian Ocean that lies between the southern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka. There are more than 3600 species of flora and fauna as well as 117 species of corals in this coastal region. This biosphere reserves in India cover 10,500 square feet of area, which comprises of 21 islands and islets in the Gulf of Mannar region. The animals found here are dugong (sea cow), sharks, dolphins, sea cucumbers, pearl oysters and many varieties of fishes.
18) Great Nicobar, Andaman & Nicobar Island
The Great Nicobar biosphere reserve covers almost the entire area of the Nicobar Island.
This biosphere reserves in India have many endemic species that aren’t seen elsewhere. Some of the species found on this island are Nicobar scrubfowl, giant robber crab, saltwater crocodile, giant leatherback sea turtle, Nicobar long-tailed Macaque, and reticulated python.
UNESCO introduced the concept of biosphere reserves to establish a strong ecological foundation and create a protective network for natural resources.
These biosphere reserves in India not just protect the flora and fauna but also people who are dependent on these natural resources.
The Western Ghats is 1600 kilometers long, and extends from Gujarat to Tamilnadu, traveling through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala.
Geographical evidence shows that these mountain ranges are older than the Himalayas.
The Western Ghats are believed to have been formed about 150 million years ago.
These mountain ranges have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Site for their biodiversity.
These Ghats are home to 7402 species of flowering plants, 6000 species of insects, 1814 species of non-flowering plants, 508 species of birds, 179 species of amphibians, 290 species of freshwater fishes, and 139 species of mammals.
Of these 325 species are in globally threatened status. There are 39 wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in the Western Ghats region.
The Western Ghats are not just protected for their biodiversity, but also because of their strategic influence on the monsoon rains.
These huge mountains act as a barrier to the south-west monsoon winds and divert the rain-laden winds towards the Indian subcontinent.
The major rivers that originate from the Western Ghats are Cauvery, Godavari, Krishna, Tungabadra, and Tamirabarani.
The Eastern Ghats start from Odissa in the North and travel down to Tamilnadu, parallel to the Bay of Bengal. They pass through certain areas in Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh.
Unlike the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats are not a continuous mountain range.
Rivers flowing through the range have eroded the mountains creating huge gaps between stretches of undulating hills.
The four major rivers that flow through the Eastern Ghats are Cauvery, Godavari, Mahanadi, and Krishna. The rivers that originate in the Eastern Ghats are Rushikulya, Vamsadhara, Sarada, Sabari, Nagavalli, Palar, Champavathi, Gosthani, Sileru, Tammileru, Pennai, Swarnamukhi, Penna, Gundlakamma, Kundu, and Vellar.
This discontinuous mountain range is called by different names in different parts. In Odissa, these stretches are known as the Chandragiri-Pottangi mountain system and Garhjat Hills.
In Tamilnadu, these discontinuous stretches are known as Karanthamalai Hills, Sirumalai Hills, Pachamalai, Kollimalai, Kalrayan hills, Palani hills, Mettur hills, Servarayan hills, Javadhu Hills, and Shevaroy Hills.
The Aravalli Mountain ranges are one of the oldest ranges in the world. Geologists believe that these fold mountains existed even when the Indian subcontinent separated from the Eurasian plate.
Archeological excavations have found Harappa and Indus Valley Civilization sites in these mountain ranges.
The Aravalli Range extends from Delhi and travels in the south-western direction toward Gujarat, passing through South Haryana and Rajasthan.
A major portion of this mountain range lies in Rajasthan. Some parts of this mountain range contain thick forests and in other places have only sand and stone.
These mountains are a rich source of minerals such as rock phosphate, asbestos, talc, apatite, beryl, kyanite, lead, silver, and zinc.
The rich mineral deposits have to lead to excessive mining in this mountain region. Many naturalists are lobbying for the protection of these oldest fold mountains to prevent them from becoming completely destroyed.
These mountain ranges are the natural habitat of many flora and fauna. Plus, they create a natural barrier between eastern Rajasthan and the Thar Desert. The rivers that originate in the Aravalli hills are Sabarmati, Luni, Sakhi, Sahibi, and Banas.
These mountain ranges lie to the south and north-west of the Himalayas. A major part of the Karakoram Range lies in the disputed region between India and Pakistan.
This mountain range also passes through Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Actually, the Pir Panjal range is a part of the Lesser Himalayas Mountain Range.
These mountains start from the Himalayas and separate from the range near the River Sutlej. From there, this range travels separately with Ravi and Beas rivers on one side and the Chenab River on the other side.
This mountain range boasts of the largest glacier outside the poles – The Siachen Glacier. The second highest peak in India and the third highest peak in the world – K2 is also in this mountain range.
There are many passes and tunnels in this mountain range. The Haji Pir Pass located in the western part of this mountain range connects Poonch and Uri.
The other passes are Rohtang Pass, Sinthan Pass, Banihall Pass, and Pir Panjal Pass.
Tunnels such as Jawahar Tunnel, Banihal Qazigund Road Tunnel, Atal Tunnel, and Banihal Railway Tunnel have improved accessibility to the villages and towns nestled in the Karakoram and Pir Panjal mountain range.
The Zabarwan Range is situated between Pir Panjal and Great Himalayan Range. It comes in the central part of the Kashmir valley in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
The north part of Zabarwan range lies in Ganderbal and the south end lies in Pampore.
Madhav peak is the highest peak of this range.
This mountain range possesses rich wildlife and is a home to animals including jackal, leopard cat, musk deer, Himalayan brown bear, red fox, langur, Himalayan weasel, long-tailed marmot, serow, Indian porcupine etc.
9) Eastern Himalaya
Best season to visit: Late October until early May
Western Himalayas or Punjab Himalayas are the westernmost part of the vast Himalayan Mountains. It lies in the regions of Kashmir,in the portions administered by India and Pakistan, and also in the northwestern part of Himachal Pradesh.
The Western Himalayas extend to the southeast region for 560 kilometers from Indus River to Sutlej River.
The five tributaries of Indus River from the Punjabi region originate from the Western Himalayas namely Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Sutlej, and Ravi.
The Sivalik Range, Great Himalayas, Zanskar Range, the Pir Panjal Range, and the Dhola Dhar Range are included within Western Himalayas.
The Panchamalai Hills are a low mountain range in the Eastern Ghats System, also known as Pacha is. They lie in the state of Tamil Nadu, 80 km north of Tiruchirapalli, in the parts of southeastern India.
As the name denotes, ‘Pachai’ means ‘green’ in Tamil, the mountain range’s vegetation is greener than some of the other hills.
Pachaimalai hills have an altitude of about 500 m to 1000 meters above sea level.
Major rivers in this range are Kallar River and Sweata Nadi and waterfalls include Mayil Uthu falls, Mangalam Aruvi falls, Koraiyar Falls etc. The mountain ranges consist of small regions like Kombainadu, Athinadu, Thenparanadu.
Kudremukh is a mountain range and the name of a peak situated in Karnataka, India. It is the third highest peak in Karnataka. The mountain is named “Kudremukh because one side of this mountain resembles the face of a horse and hence the name. Kudremukh in Kannada means “horse-faced”.
This mountain range is covered by lush green forests, hills, lakes, and valleys, so is a paradise for the nature lover. It is the second-highest peak after Mullayanagiri.
Literally, ‘Sivalik’ means’ tresses of Shiva’. Sivalik Hills or Churia Hills are part of the outer Himalayas that extends from Indus River about 1500 miles eastwards to Bharathapuzha River. Though only 10 miles wide in places, Sivalik Hills have an average elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet. These ranges are the southern- most hills of the Himalayas. There exists a regular course from River Yamuna and River Ravi on the south of Western Himalaya.
Kaimur Range , also known as Kaimur Hills is the eastern portion of the Vindhya Range. It is a hill range running across Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is about 483 kilometers long extending from Madhya Pradesh to Bihar.
The width of this range is about 50 miles. It is one of the most important spot of cultural and archaeological point of view. Antiquarian remains such as coins, potteries, prehistoric rock paintings, inscriptions etc have also been found here.
15) Lower Himalayan Range
Best season to visit: late October until early May
Lower Himalayan Range is also known as Mahabharata Range, Lesser Himalaya, or the Himachal, with an elevation of about 3,700 – 4,500 m. The largest range of this major east-west mountain range is Pir Panjal
The Lower Himalayan Range parallels the much higher High Himalayan range from Indus in Pakistan to Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and India. It also parallels the Outer Himalayas to the south.
Oldest Mountain Range in India
Literally Aravalli means, ‘line of peaks’. Eroded by the ancient mountains, Aravalli Ranges are the oldest range of fold mountains in India. The origin can be traced back to times when the Indian Plate was separated from the Eurasian Plate by an ocean.
Youngest Mountain range in India & Longest Mountain Range in India
The most famous Himalayan ranges are the youngest and longest mountain ranges in India. It also has almost every largest peak of the world.
The Himalayan mountain ranges are the primary source of many mighty rivers in India.
50 Highest Peaks of India
Jammu and Kashmir
Saser Kangri I/K22
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Saser Kangri II E
Jammu and Kashmir
Saser Kangri III
Jammu and Kashmir
Teram Kangri I
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Teram Kangri III
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Chong Kumdang Ri
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Chamshen Kangri/Tughmo Zarpo
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Chong Kumdang Ri II
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Saraswati Parvat I/Saraswati Peak
Jammu and Kashmir
Central Tibetan Plateau
Chorten Nyima Ri
Saf Minal/Pk 6911
So that’s about the major mountain ranges in India. Hope you all have got a clear vision about the major mountain ranges in India, after reading this blog.
These mountain ranges in India are treasure troves of natural resources. They travel through the entire length and breadth of the Indian subcontinent.
These are not just homes to the numerous flora and fauna but have also played a vital role in shaping the culture, tradition, and economy of the regions surrounding them.
‘Sight words’ is a term associated with reading. It normally refers to a set of words that appear repeatedly on a page in books while reading.
Sight words form the basics of reading lessons for children. The child is taught to recognize these words quickly and accurately. This will help the child to attain fluency in reading. Only when reading is fluent can the child understand and comprehend the written matter.
SIGHT WORD LISTS – AN OVERVIEW
The Dolch word list and the Fry word list are the most popular sight words list.
Dr. Edward Dolch has 200 sight words used in teaching students from Kindergarten to third grade.
He prepared this list by studying words that frequently occurred in children’s books during the 1930s and 1940s.
Dr. Edward Fry developed a word list based on words that frequently appeared in reading matter used from Grades 3 to 9 in the 1950s.
This list contains the most widely used 1000 words in English. The list includes words found in current books, textbooks, and newspapers.
Though there are almost 1000 sight words in the English language, the most commonly used is around 100 of them.
Words like I, we, on, all, who, the, he, was, does, me, be, there, am, then, at, an, so, are examples of sight words.
TEACHING OF SIGHT WORDS
Basic understanding of sight words:
It should be understood that the sight words cannot be taught through phonics. They cannot be sounded. In phonics, the child is taught to decode each word and read. Decoding of sight words will not make sense.
The sight words cannot be associated with illustrations and hence pictorial flashcards cannot be used.
Flashcards with the words written on them can be used. Readers are expected to recognize the words by looking at them.
Teaching sight words focus on the reading words that occur frequently without having to decode each and every word.
Hence it is critical that the instructors spend time to teach the children the right usage and pronunciation of these words.
The language skills of children develop between the ages of three and five. This is not a written rule and hence these words can be taught as and when the child is found to be receptive.
Literacy experts suggest that a child in Kindergarten should be introduced to 20 sight words. The child should have mastered 100 sight words by the end of First Grade.
The sight words have to be stated several times to a child till he gets to read, say and use it right. The students are taught to memorize these words by sight as these words do not comply with any spelling or grammar rules.
They have to recognize these words instantly while reading. In short, the readers need to learn to by heart these words. This way reading becomes simpler and comprehension easier.
Sight words can be taught in different ways.
-The most common method is to see and say. The child sees the word on a card and says the word while underlining the word with his finger.
-Spell reading is another technique used. The child says the word, spells the word and reads the word once again.
– Air writing or skywriting is another method used where the child says the word and writes the letters in front of the word in the air.
-Table writing is a method where the child writes the letters on a table, first looking and then from memory.
-Arm tapping is yet another way where the child says the word and then spells out the letters tapping on his arm.
– Creating a song the lyrics of which resemble a familiar nursery rhyme or tune. The words are replaced with spellings of sight words.
– Creating a story on how the letters of these words look and how they are connected. Children build associations quicker by listening to stories.
The frequency of lessons and the child’s attention span determine whether all techniques are to be used. Ideally, the use of all these techniques, are recommended in the teaching of sight words.
The repetitive seeing, hearing, speaking, spelling, singing and writing of the words will ensure long term memorization.
A child can be taught three to five new words in a day. These words can be reviewed before the start of the next day’s lessons.
If the child is able to recognize the words he can be taught another set of three to five words.
The pace can be slowed down if it is found that the child does not remember the first set of words.
It is said that the child has to recognize the word in about three seconds.
This is not a universal norm that needs to be followed. The pace of learning is dependent on factors like the age of the child, memory skills, and varies from child to child.
The words can be taught through simple games where they get a turn to read the words.
The teacher observes the child for correct reading. When they go wrong, the teacher takes the turn to read correctly without offending the children.
Word walls are found to be very effective in the teaching of sight words.
The teacher and children together prepare colorful charts with the words displayed on them. It acts as an interactive, ongoing platform for the different words taught and used frequently.
Books with repetitive matter and word search books help the child to identify the sight words being taught. Children get excited when they come across words they have learned.
Follow up of the techniques:
It is imperative that the teacher or instructor know to what extent the children have understood the lessons that have been taught.
Manipulative techniques like mixing up the letters and getting the children to rearrange them correctly help the teacher to understand their level of grasping. Magnetic alphabets or letter tiles can be used.
The children can be asked to identify sight words in print on the page of a book. They have to point out the specific word surrounded by other words, spaces, and punctuation marks. Kindergarten children may be rewarded each time they find the word.
Alternatively, the children could be asked to perform an activity each time the teacher came across the sight word in small group reading sessions.
Play-acting can be done with children forming the letters with their bodies.
These activities will reinforce the child’s knowledge too. Learning to read is not easy.
Identifying sight words increases the child’s confidence to read. Fluency in reading is the key to the understanding of the reading matter.
Each word matters in language and literature. Words help us to read, write, think and talk.
Words help to communicate. Hence it is essential to provide children with the right basic education. Sight words have to be memorized as there is no other way to master them.
The initiative and creativity of the teachers go a long way in the teaching of sight words. Their dedication and motivation are paramount to the success of the child’s learning.
Reading is an exercise for your mind. It is a way of turning a text into meaning and then understanding it to interact with it through a message. To make your reading more effective, you may make a sense of what you read. Often you unconsciously lose the meaning in between, which causes a sense within yourself to make use of effective reading strategies. Here are a few effective reading strategies for you:
Based on Critical Reading Strategies
Critical reading of a text means to read from your own perspective, apart from what the writer has painted it for you. So, this rational way of reading can be considered as the beginning of true learning and personal development. Here are a few effective critical reading strategies for you:
It means to attain pre-knowledge about the text, before starting to read it, which may save you time. It may be done by researching:
Who is the author?
What is the author’s purpose?
Who is the audience?
Contextualizing or researching the text involves exploring the historical, cultural and biographical frame of references of the text.
From a wider perspective, it means that you should try to differentiate between your own understandings of the text with that of some other person’s, as an understanding of a text may vary from time to time and place to place.
It is all about questioning the content of the text to understand, comprehend and clarify what you are reading, which will help you to build interest with the text. This can be made easier by framing 3 sets of questions:
Subject-Text(represents subject or text undergoing discussion)
Personal reality(represents your own experience)
External reality(represents the concepts of larger society)
This is an effective reading strategy, which is also known by other names like outlining or summarizing. This method is to identify the central theme of the text and then to paraphrase it in your own words. The key to synopsizing is the ability to make out a difference between the main idea, supporting idea and the examples.
5. Co-relating with related reading
This is a mode of reading based on the factor of comparison, by examining the differences or similarities within the texts to figure it out in a better sense.
6. Assessing an argument
This involves testing the logicality along with the credibility and emotional impact of the text.
You can analyze an argument using these 4 steps:
You should thoroughly go through the instructions and arguments
Then spot out the assumptions and claims of the argument
Now you should think of counter explanations and examples of the arguments.
Finally, ask yourself about the changes that can be made.
This is a method of reading a text with some pre-conceived notions in mind. This will let you get a better understanding of the text.
Academic Reading Strategies
Being a student, one of the biggest challenges you may face is to complete reading the academics. So if you know the different academic reading strategies, you will enjoy reading. Here are a few of the academic reading strategies:
Scanning is a specific reading skill that does not focus on every nook and corner of the text.
You do scanning while reading a schedule about the screen timings of a movie or a cricket match or while going through the weather map in the newspaper.
To make the scanning process more helpful, you can use the following strategies:
Find out the keyword from the question itself
You should scan separately for each question
When you re-locate the keyword, go through the surrounding texts too.
This is a technique almost similar to that of scanning, but the aim is to collect the main points of the text from a wider perspective. It’s just like skimming milk, where after skimming, we skim the finest part of the milk. Likewise, when you skim a text, you will learn the main points in the text, thereby; you can save your time.
Good skimmers do not skim everything. You can do it wisely by slowing down your pace of reading at places like:
Introductory and concluding paragraphs
10. Intensive Reading
When compared to the other two techniques, this is relatively slower and a time consuming one.
This involves sentence to sentence reading rather than word to word reading.
You should read every sentence in detail from the beginning to the end and thereby, analyze the complete meaning of the text.
If you put too much pressure on vocabulary, then it would be a burden rather than a blessing.
Based on Cognitive Reading Strategies
This is a mental procedure for achieving a goal. In simpler words, cognitive strategies for learning will help you in reading effectively by just thinking and then solving the problem. There are different methods of cognitive reading like:
This is a way of extracting the meaning of the text by bringing together the things that are written or unwritten in the text along with your prior knowledge about the subject. You have to read between the lines and understand the secondary meaning of the text.
12. Monitoring or Clarifying
It is a reading comprehension strategy where the reader constantly enquires whether the text makes any sense to them and enforcing strategic methods to make the text easier. You can understand it better by using these few methods:
Re-read the paragraph
Search for unfamiliar words
Reconstruct information into an image, concept or map
13. Visualizing and Organizing
It is a method that stimulates the readers to create a vague image in their mind, about the content they read. It’s like a person making movies or videos in their minds out of the prior knowledge, imagination and the content of the text. This will stimulate your imagination and enhance your involvement with the text and thus improve your mental imagery
14. Searching and Selecting
This is a way of searching sources of the text to choose the required piece of information to answer the questions, solve problems, and clear the wrong interpretations or to gather information.
This is a mode of reading which is almost similar to that of the above-mentioned method-‘Inquisition’, which involves questioning. This will engage you with self-questioning, by which you will gain an answer with the help of your peers and teachers.
Some questions which will help you read effectively are:
Why did that character behave so?
What led to such an issue?
Based on Fluency Reading Strategies
Whether you read it with hatred, stumbled words or without expression, your comprehension will be affected. Better fluency leads to better understanding. So some of the fluency reading strategies are discussed below:
16. Reading it aloud
This can be done with the help of a peer or a teacher, where, you should read it aloud, and your peer should correct the mistakes regarding your fluency in language and correctness in sentences.
This will be quite a good way to determine your initial level of reading.
This is a reading strategy that aims at the repetition of sentences. In this, you should copy what the teacher says, just as we did in smaller classes. This will sharpen your ability to decode words and increase vocabulary.
18. Partner Reading
This is a kind of peer learning where strong readers are paired with weaker ones so that the latter can learn from the former. This will allow you to share your strengths. This is also known as Peer-assisted learning.
19. Cloze Reading
This is a technique of effective reading where the instructor will read the passage aloud and will deliberately skip certain words from the passage, and further you will be asked to read the missing words together. This will improve your analytical as well as critical thinking ability.
Following an SQ3R is a well-known strategy for reading. It can be applied to a whole range of reading purposes as it is flexible and takes into account the need to change reading speeds.
SQ3R acronym stands for:
Reading is a skill that can be considered as a lifelong achievement. So by using wisely the effective reading strategies, you can improve your lifelong skill, which may often save your time