7 Major Mountain Ranges in India


India is a land of huge natural diversity. From snow-capped mountains to dry deserts and sandy coastlines, the natural landscape is as diverse as the culture and tradition of the nation. India is home to some of the longest and oldest mountain ranges in the world. These mountain ranges have a profound impact on the weather conditions, lifestyle, religious beliefs, and economic development of the country. In this blog, we will explore the 7 major mountain ranges in India.

Sl noMountain Ranges
1The Himalayan Mountain Range
2The Western Ghats
3The Eastern Ghats
4The Aravalli Mountain Range
5The Karakoram and Pir Panjal Mountain Range
6The Purvanchal Mountain Range
7The Satpura and Vindhya Mountain Ranges

1) The Himalayan Mountain Range

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-Winter (December until Early-March)

How to get there – View Direction

The Himalayan Mountain Ranges is 2,400 kilometers long and traverses through five countries – India, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, and Pakistan.

It begins near the Indus River in Pakistan and ends near the Brahmaputra River in India.

The Himalayan states of India are Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Jammu and Kashmir.

When you look at the top view of this mountain range from space, it looks like an arch.

In terms of age, the Himalayas is quite a young mountain range as it was formed around 40 to 50 million years ago.

The word “Himalayas” is derived from Sanskrit and means “The Land of Snow.”

This huge mountain range consists of three parallel ranges, which are known as the Outer Himalayas (Shivalik range), the Greater Himalayas, and the Lesser Himalayas.

The Kali Gandaki Gorge is located at around 8000 kilometers distance from the start of the range. This gorge divides the mountain range into the Eastern and Western sections.

The world’s highest peak – Mount Everest as well as three of the six highest peaks of the world is in the east of the Himalayas, in the Mahalangur Himal region.

The other three peaks are Cho Oyu, Lhotse, and Makalu.

It is believed that the Himalayas have more than 1500 glaciers and hundreds of lakes that form the biggest source of freshwater for the Himalayan nations.

The rivers that originate in this mountain range are Ganges, Indus, Saraswathi, Yamuna, Yangtze, Ganga-Brahmaputra, Yarlung, and Nujiang.

2) The Western Ghats

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-After October

How to get there: View Direction

The Western Ghats is 1600 kilometers long, and extends from Gujarat to Tamilnadu, traveling through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala.

Geographical evidence shows that these mountain ranges are older than the Himalayas.

The Western Ghats are believed to have been formed about 150 million years ago.

These mountain ranges have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Site for their biodiversity.

These Ghats are home to 7402 species of flowering plants, 6000 species of insects, 1814 species of non-flowering plants, 508 species of birds, 179 species of amphibians, 290 species of freshwater fishes, and 139 species of mammals.

Of these 325 species are in globally threatened status. There are 39 wildlife sanctuaries and national parks in the Western Ghats region.

The Western Ghats are not just protected for their biodiversity, but also because of their strategic influence on the monsoon rains.

These huge mountains act as a barrier to the south-west monsoon winds and divert the rain-laden winds towards the Indian subcontinent.

The major rivers that originate from the Western Ghats are Cauvery, Godavari, Krishna, Tungabadra, and Tamirabarani.

3) The Eastern Ghats

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-Between October and March

How to get there: View Direction

The Eastern Ghats start from Odissa in the North and travel down to Tamilnadu, parallel to the Bay of Bengal. They pass through certain areas in Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh.

Unlike the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats are not a continuous mountain range.

Rivers flowing through the range have eroded the mountains creating huge gaps between stretches of undulating hills.

The four major rivers that flow through the Eastern Ghats are Cauvery, Godavari, Mahanadi, and Krishna. The rivers that originate in the Eastern Ghats are Rushikulya, Vamsadhara, Sarada, Sabari, Nagavalli, Palar, Champavathi, Gosthani, Sileru, Tammileru, Pennai, Swarnamukhi, Penna, Gundlakamma, Kundu, and Vellar.

This discontinuous mountain range is called by different names in different parts. In Odissa, these stretches are known as the Chandragiri-Pottangi mountain system and Garhjat Hills.

In Tamilnadu, these discontinuous stretches are known as Karanthamalai Hills, Sirumalai Hills, Pachamalai, Kollimalai, Kalrayan hills, Palani hills, Mettur hills, Servarayan hills, Javadhu Hills, and Shevaroy Hills.

Also Read: Top 12 Longest and Major Rivers in India

The Biligiriranga Hills and the Nilgiris Hills form the corridor between the Eastern and Western Ghats. In Karnataka, the mountain stretches are known as Male Mahadeshwara Hills.

In Andhra, they are known as the Seshachalam-Velikonda Range, Palikonda-Lankamalla-Nallamala Ranges, Kondapalli Hills, Papi Hills, Maliya Range, and Madugula Konda range.

4. The Aravalli Mountain Range

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-November to February

How to get there- View Direction

The Aravalli Mountain ranges are one of the oldest ranges in the world. Geologists believe that these fold mountains existed even when the Indian subcontinent separated from the Eurasian plate.

Archeological excavations have found Harappa and Indus Valley Civilization sites in these mountain ranges.

The Aravalli Range extends from Delhi and travels in the south-western direction toward Gujarat, passing through South Haryana and Rajasthan.

A major portion of this mountain range lies in Rajasthan. Some parts of this mountain range contain thick forests and in other places have only sand and stone.

These mountains are a rich source of minerals such as rock phosphate, asbestos, talc, apatite, beryl, kyanite, lead, silver, and zinc.

The rich mineral deposits have to lead to excessive mining in this mountain region. Many naturalists are lobbying for the protection of these oldest fold mountains to prevent them from becoming completely destroyed.

These mountain ranges are the natural habitat of many flora and fauna. Plus, they create a natural barrier between eastern Rajasthan and the Thar Desert. The rivers that originate in the Aravalli hills are Sabarmati, Luni, Sakhi, Sahibi, and Banas.

5) The Karakoram and Pir Panjal Mountain Range

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-March to August

How to get there: View on Map

These mountain ranges lie to the south and north-west of the Himalayas. A major part of the Karakoram Range lies in the disputed region between India and Pakistan.

This mountain range also passes through Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Actually, the Pir Panjal range is a part of the Lesser Himalayas Mountain Range.

These mountains start from the Himalayas and separate from the range near the River Sutlej. From there, this range travels separately with Ravi and Beas rivers on one side and the Chenab River on the other side.

This mountain range boasts of the largest glacier outside the poles – The Siachen Glacier. The second highest peak in India and the third highest peak in the world – K2 is also in this mountain range.

There are many passes and tunnels in this mountain range. The Haji Pir Pass located in the western part of this mountain range connects Poonch and Uri.

The other passes are Rohtang Pass, Sinthan Pass, Banihall Pass, and Pir Panjal Pass.

Tunnels such as Jawahar Tunnel, Banihal Qazigund Road Tunnel, Atal Tunnel, and Banihal Railway Tunnel have improved accessibility to the villages and towns nestled in the Karakoram and Pir Panjal mountain range.

6. The Purvanchal Mountain Range

Best season to visit-Monsoon Season

How to get there – View Directions

The Purvanchal mountain range extends from the Himalayas toward the northeastern region of India, south of the Brahmaputra valley.

It travels through Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.

The hills in this mountain range are Kohima, Patkai, Barail, Khasi–Jaintia, Naga Hills, Lushai, Manipur, and Mizoram Mizo. This mountain range has the wettest place on earth – Cherrapunji.

7. The Satpura and Vindhya Mountain Ranges

mountain ranges in india

Best season to visit-October and February

How to get there- View Direction

The Satpura and the Vindya are parallel mountain ranges that pass through the central part of the country.

Also Read:  24 Most Popular National Festivals Of India

The Satpura mountain range is triangle shaped. The tip of the triangle is at Ratnapuri and the other two sides run parallel to the Tapti and Narmada Rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea.

This mountain range travels through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Maharashtra.

The Vindhya mountain range is one of the oldest mountain ranges in India and is a discontinuous range of mountains. It travels from East to West through Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

The Vindhya hills near Champaneer end in a series of hills, which connect this mountain range with the Aravalli mountain range.

Tributaries of Ganga and Yamuna flow into the Vindhya mountain ranges. The tributaries are Ken, Chambal, Betwa, Kali Sindh, Parbati, and Dhasan.

50 Highest Peaks of India

Sl noMountain Height StateRange
1Kangchenjunga8586SikkimKangchenjunga Himalaya
2Nanda Devi7816UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
3Kamet7756Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
4Saltoro Kangri/K107742Jammu and KashmirSaltoro Karakoram
5Saser Kangri I/K227672Jammu and KashmirSaser Karakoram
6Mamostong Kangri7516Jammu and KashmirRimo Karakoram
7Saser Kangri II E7513 Jammu and Kashmir Saser Karakoram
8Saser Kangri III7495 Jammu and Kashmir Saser Karakoram
9Teram Kangri I7462 Jammu and Kashmir Siachen Karakoram
10Jongsong Peak 7462 SikkimKangchenjunga Himalaya
11K127428Jammu and KashmirSaltoro Karakoram
12Kabru N7412SikkimKangchenjunga Himalaya
13Ghent Kangri7401 Jammu and Kashmir Saltoro Karakoram
14Rimo I7385 Jammu and Kashmir Rimo Karakoram
15Teram Kangri III7382 Jammu and Kashmir Siachen Karakoram
16Kirat Chuli7362 Sikkim Kangchenjunga Himalaya
17Mana7272UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
18Apsarasas Kangri7245 Jammu and Kashmir Siachen Karakoram
19Mukut Parbat7242 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
20Rimo III7233 Jammu and Kashmir Rimo Karakoram
21Singhi Kangri7202 Jammu and Kashmir Siachen Karakoram
22Hardeol7161 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
23Chaukhamba I/Badrinath7138 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
24Nun-Kun7135 Jammu and Kashmir Zanskar Himalaya
25Pauhunri7128SikkimSikkim Himalaya
26Pathibhara/The Pyramid7123SikkimKangchenjunga Himalaya
27Trisul I7120Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
28Satopanth7075 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
29Tirsuli 7074 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
30Chong Kumdang Ri7071Jammu and Kashmir Rimo Karakoram
31Dunagiri7066UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
32Kangto7060Arunachal PradeshAssam Himalaya
33Nyegyi Kansang7047Arunachal PradeshAssam Himalaya
34Padmanabh7030Jammu and KashmirRimo Karakoram
35Shudu Tsempa7024Sikkim Sikkim Himalaya
36Chamshen Kangri/Tughmo Zarpo7017Jammu and KashmirSaser Karakoram
37Aq Tash7016Jammu and KashmirRimo Karakoram
38Chong Kumdang Ri II7004Jammu and KashmirRimo Karakoram
39Rishi Pahar6992UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
40Thalay Sagar6984 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
41Mt. Lakshmi6983Jammu and KashmirRimo Karakoram
42Kedarnath Peak6968UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
43Langpo6965SikkimSikkim Himalaya
44Saraswati Parvat I/Saraswati Peak6940 Uttarakhand Garhwal Himalaya
45Shahi Kangri6934Jammu and KashmirCentral Tibetan Plateau
46Sri Kailas6932UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
47 Kalanka6931UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
48 Chorten Nyima Ri6927SikkimSikkim Himalaya
49 Saf Minal/Pk 69116911UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya
50Panchchuli II6904UttarakhandGarhwal Himalaya

These mountain ranges in India are treasure troves of natural resources. They travel through the entire length and breadth of the Indian subcontinent.

These mountain ranges are not just homes to the numerous flora and fauna but have also played a vital role in shaping the culture, tradition, and economy of the regions surrounding them.

Frequently Asked Question(s)

The two mountain ranges are the Ghats- the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats. These two mountains form the eastern and western edges respectively. These two ranges run roughly parallel to the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea coasts.

The world’s highest mountain range is the Himalayan mountain ranges. It is the longest mountain range in India. It is about 2,400 kilometers long.

The Aravalli Mountain ranges are one of the oldest ranges in the world. A major portion of this mountain range lies in Rajasthan.

There are 7 major mountain ranges in India.

They are The Himalayan Mountain Range, The Western Ghats, The Eastern Ghats, The Aravalli Mountain Range, The Karakoram and Pir Panjal Mountain Range, The Purvanchal Mountain Range, The Satpura, and Vindhya Mountain Ranges

India is home to 7 major mountain ranges